The Basics of a Prosthetic Leg - Amputee Site (2022)

Jacky Hunt-Broersma is an amputee who’s been running for five years — here are her tried-and-true tips.

The Basics of a Prosthetic Leg - Amputee Site (1)

It’s amazing how many things you need to think of as a runner to prepare for a race. You train for months, many hours a day (and night): walking, running, building a strong core, and boosting your mental strength. You need to ensure that your fueling, hydration, clothing, and shoes all work for you. And then you have the occasional blisters and the chafing to deal with.

To make things a bit more interesting, let’s throw in a prosthetic leg. Now you need to think of a whole bunch of other things to keep you going, and unfortunately there isn’t a lot of information available for amputee runners.

The reason? There aren’t many people running, especially long distances, on a leg made of carbon.

From the outside, a prosthetic blade looks cool and fast. It looks like you can bounce across the rocks like a fairy without feeling a thing, no blisters or sprained ankles to deal with, and your foot doesn’t get wet when you run through water. And while some of these things are true, it is, unfortunately, not that easy.

I have been an amputee for 19 years and a runner for five years. I lost my leg to cancer at the age of 26, and nothing prepared me for a dramatic experience like that. Learning to walk again on a prosthetic leg—something that your brain doesn’t trust—is hard; it’s challenging to put your faith into a mechanical device that doesn’t give you any feedback about the position of your foot and whether it’s in a safe position so that you can move forward. I never thought of these movements until the amputation, and this was the most difficult thing for me to learn.

(Video) The Basics of a Below-knee Prosthetic Leg

I wasn’t a runner before my amputation, but my husband is a runner; when I was waiting for him at the finish line of a race cheering on runners, I admired them all crossing the finish line—they were totally exhausted, but feeling so proud of their accomplishment. It was at that moment that I decided that I wanted to give running a go, but I never knew how complicated the process would be as an amputee.

The Basics of a Prosthetic Leg - Amputee Site (2)

It isn’t as simple as putting on a pair of running shoes, stepping out the door, and going for a run when you are an amputee. I started running with a walking prosthetic leg, but it was too heavy. I needed something that was made for running, but I first had to do research to find the foot that worked for me.

I had to get my leg measured countless times, and run in a test socket for a while, to make sure the socket fit properly. Then, when I got my new running blade, it took some time to adjust. Yes, the first time I ran with a blade it made me feel like I was flying when compared to my previous leg, but I wasn’t putting all my weight on it. My brain wasn’t connecting the dots yet. I suddenly had this foreign object strapped to my leg, and I was expected to run fast on it. It was a process to build trust, and the more I started trusting the blade, the more weight I could put on it and make my gait much better.

The Basics of a Prosthetic Leg - Amputee Site (3)

Over the years I’ve learned a lot—here are my tried-and-true tips to not only help other amputees, but to help give able-bodied runners a little insight into what amputees need to think of.

The Basics of a Prosthetic Leg


To understand amputee runners better, it’s important to know the basics of what a prosthetic leg consists of. First, you have the foot, which can also be a blade (that you see runners wear during the Paralympics). The second part is the socket, and the third part is the liner. All three form a prosthetic leg.

Your stump (or residual limb) is the part of your leg where the amputation happened, and this will need to be connected to the prosthetic leg. It works like this: The liner slides tightly over your stump, which in turn slides into the socket (which is molded around your stump) and the socket is connected to the foot or blade.

(Video) Introduction to Your Prosthesis - Functional Limb Service Tutorial Video Series

There are different ways to connect the liner to the socket. For walking, I use a pin socket, which means there is a pin built into the liner which slides or clicks into the socket. For running I use suction—suction sockets are molded around your leg, and the liner and socket fits very tight into each other. The air gets pushed out at the bottom of the socket through a valve. You also get a vacuum system, which consists of a liner that goes over your socket and your leg, and it creates a vacuum to keep your leg in the socket.

More on Sockets


This is a super important piece of equipment, and it needs to fit properly otherwise you won’t be able to go very far. Most amputees will use the same system (pin, suction, vacuum) for both running and walking. However, I found that the pin socket is great for walking—and it is easy to take on and off at night if I need to go to the bathroom—but I didn’t like it for running. It causes too much pistoning (when your leg moves up and down in the socket)—it feels like a shoe that is too big and your foot moves around in it, and the rubbing will cause blisters. The suction system works great for running, and I’ve found this system holds me tightly into place. Out of all the systems, this one gave me the least amount of sweating issues.

The vacuum system is another popular choice, especially for runners. My issue with this system is that you need a long sleeve over your leg and socket. I just found it hard to roll up, and it fits really tight around my knee so I didn’t have a great range of motion. (And the sweating with this system is ridiculous!) I know this works well for some runners, but with the amount of running I do, I’ve found that I had to stop every five miles to dry my leg to prevent it from sliding off, especially when you live in a place with high humidity.

More on Running Feet


There are a lot of options regarding running feet, and I’ve tried a few. Every person is different and will have a different fit, so it’s ultimately a personal choice. The biggest challenge with running feet are that they are expensive, and you can’t just try a foot out and decide if you like it or not. It isn’t like shoes that you can ditch if you don’t like them.

As a single leg amputee, I have to ensure that the foot and blade I choose matches the natural pushback I get from my healthy leg, otherwise I will run lopsided. You need to get the balance right. Not enough pushback and it feels like you are running with a brick tied to your leg. Too much pushback and your leg will bounce too high, injuring your hips.

These are the legs I have the most experience with:

(Video) Walking With a Prosthetic Limb - Prosthetic Step Training

  1. Freedom Catapult

I started my running on the Freedom Innovation Catapult foot. This is a great option for those just starting out, and it’s super easy to adjust. Unfortunately, the tread (bottom part that touches the ground) doesn’t last very long on the trails—I had to stick the tread from my running shoes onto the blade if I went on trails or longer runs.

  1. Fillauer Obsidian

I switched to the Fillauer Obsidian when I started trail running because the foot has a split toe and it helps when running over rocks or roots. I feel more balanced in it, and it has great tread. The only thing with the Fillauer foot is that it is a little tricky to set up, and you will definitely need a professional to help you with this in the beginning.

  1. Fillauer AllPro

I use this as my walking foot. You could also use this as a running foot if you wanted to. I use this foot to power hike, which is part of my training for ultramarathons.

  1. Ossur Flex Run With Nike Sole

This foot seems to be a popular choice among amputee athletes. It comes with great tread, and the Ossur brand has been around for a long time, so it’s a trusted brand. I did test out this foot, and I found it heavier than the Fillauer Obsidian—it just didn’t move with me as well as the Fillauer foot did.

More on Liners


Like the socket, it’s super important that you get a liner that works for you. For my running, I use the Ossur Iceross Seal-In, and for my walking socket I use the Otto Bock Skinguard. The downside with the walking liner is that it doesn’t last very long—I have to replace mine every six months. They aren’t cheap (around $550), and there’s no guarantee your insurance will cover it. (However, you may be able to find cheaper liners through Adaptive Direct or eBay.)

(Video) What's Inside a Prosthetic Leg? | I Didn't Know That

The Basics of a Prosthetic Leg - Amputee Site (4)

What Is the Cost of Running Blades?


Running prosthetics are expensive, and not all insurance companies will cover it. Prosthetics can cost anywhere from $10,000 and up. There are other options though: There are a few great charities out there that will help with running blades and financing.

How Do You Handle Sweat?


Sweating is a huge issue when it comes to wearing prosthetic walking or running legs. There is nothing scarier (except a snake!) like being out on a run and your leg slides off from all the sweat. One system can cause more sweating than another, so you need to weigh the pros and cons. With my pin and sucking systems, I’ve found that I don’t sweat as much as I do when I used the vacuum system, but sweating is still an issue.

Personally, wearing a sweat sock under my liner has made a huge difference. The one I use is the Knit-Rite Liner-Liner Prosthetic Sock With X-Static—this sock super soft on my skin, and it’s thin enough not to interfere with the tight-fitting socket. The downside with the sock is that it doesn’t last very long, and they are expensive.

Other options to try is to rub your stump full of heavy-duty antiperspirant in the evening before you go to bed. I’ve tried this, and it helped with the sweating, but the deodorant irritated my skin. I know some amputees who have had Botox injections into their stump as well.

How Do You Handle Rubbing, Chafing, and Blisters?


When I first started running with a blade, the socket would rub on parts of my bone and it would be seriously annoying and painful. Rubbing some lube—I use Squirrel’s Nut Butter— on those spots help. (You can also talk with your prosthetist if you’re having this issue, and they can make a new socket that’s wider to relieve the pressure.)

When it comes to blisters, I don’t only get them on my foot, but also on my stump. The trick with blisters is to make sure your skin isn’t rubbing too much and that it isn’t wet, which is a challenge when you are an amputee. Again, if you lube the sections that are prone to blisters, that will help. Also make sure your socket fits properly—but as with feet, your stump will swell when it gets hot and shrink when it is cold. It is very tricky to get something that always fits perfectly.

(Video) Amputation Principles | ANIMATION | BASICS | NEET PG | Amputee - The Young Orthopod

FAQs

What are the five design considerations for a prosthesis? ›

What are the five design considerations for a prosthesis? Location, strength vs. weight, attachment, available materials and cost 6.

How long does a prosthetic leg last? ›

Your prosthetist might recommend adjusting your current equipment or replacing one of the components. Or you might get a prescription for a new prosthetic leg, which happens on average every three to five years. If you receive new components, it's important to take the time to understand how they work.

How long after a leg amputation can you get a prosthetic? ›

Prosthetic fitting can start as soon as surgical wounds are sufficiently healed, normally within 6 to 8 weeks of amputation, with exceptions for dysvascular or multitrauma patients. Then on, initial prosthetic fitting and training may take 2 weeks.

What is the difference between prosthetic and prosthesis? ›

A prosthesis is a man-made substitute for a missing body part (just one is called a prosthesis and is also often called a prosthetic; the plural is prostheses). Sometimes, a part of the body must be removed if cancer is found there. Sometimes getting treatment might result in hair loss.

What are the four types of prosthetics? ›

When talking about prosthetics and artificial limbs, it's important to note the differences between the various types and their specific uses. There are usually four main types to consider: transradial, transfemoral, transtibial, and transhumeral. However, other prosthetics can be used in certain conditions.

What are the basic components of prosthesis? ›

The basic components of a prosthesis include the following:
  • Socket (plastic receptacle in which the residual limb is contained)
  • Appendage (hand or foot)
  • Joint (wrist, elbow, shoulder, ankle, knee, or hip)
  • Connecting module that connects the appendage and joint to the socket.

What is the most common prosthetic leg? ›

The prosthesis prescription

The two most common lower extremity amputations are the transfemoral (above the knee- AK) and the transtibial (below the knee- BK).

How do you attach a prosthetic leg? ›

How to put on a below knee prosthesis with one-way valve and ...

Why can't you sleep with a prosthetic leg? ›

Take off Your Prosthesis Limb

It is essential to take off a prosthetic limb before going to bed each night. Sleeping with a prosthesis on can cause injuries to the limb caused by awkward sleep positions or constant pressure on the limb from the prosthetic device.

How many hours a day can you wear a prosthetic leg? ›

If you are a new amputee, your shrinker should be worn 23 hours a day, except when you are bathing or washing the residual limb. If you have been an amputee and now have a prosthesis, you should wear your shrinker only while sleeping at night.

How do you shower with a prosthetic leg? ›

The best way to stay safe while showering and reduce your risk of falling is to shower sitting down. Even if you have your prosthesis we still recommend that you shower sitting! It is important that you sit because the bottom of your prosthetic foot is smooth and slippery.

How long does an amputee have to wear a shrinker? ›

Shrinkers should last six to twelve months if cared for properly. Weight gain, weight loss or a natural decrease in the size of the residual limb due to muscular changes may mean a smaller or larger sized shrinker is required.

How long does it take to learn to walk on a prosthetic leg? ›

Overall, this learning process can take up to one year, especially if you have had an above-knee amputation. Remember that building confidence and staying healthy is key to the process of learning to walk with a prosthetic leg.

Can you get in the shower with a prosthetic leg? ›

None of them can take shower as they wish. Due to its metal components, prosthesis that amputees wear everyday can not be carried with them to shower. So some of them jump or crawl to get showered, the rest of them, choose to avoid taking shower.

What do you call someone who has a prosthetic leg? ›

A prosthetist is a healthcare professional who makes and fits artificial limbs (prostheses) for people with disabilities. This includes artificial legs and arms for people who have had amputations due to conditions such as cancer, diabetes, or injury.

How much does a prosthetic leg weigh? ›

Weight of Limb Segments
Upper ArmLeg
Women2.554.81
Men2.714.33
20 May 2014

Can you drive with prosthetic legs? ›

The good news is that many amputees can in fact drive!

Many individuals who have lower limb prosthetic devices can drive vehicles safely and effectively with a few modifications. This enables you to live your life more normally, relying less on others for transportation.

What is the most popular prosthetic? ›

25 Most common prosthetics by claims volume, 2021
RankHCPCS/CPT CodeHCPCS/CPT Description
1L8699Prosthetic implant, not otherwise specified
2L8000Mastectomy bra
3L8680Implantable neurostimulator electrode each
4L8612Aqueous shunt prosthesis
21 more rows

How does prosthetic leg stay on? ›

The prosthesis must also be suspended or held onto the limb by some means, such as a suspension sleeve, or a locking pin that is attached to the liner and fits into a locking mechanism. Other suspension options include suction or vacuum, and cuffs or harnesses.

What percent of amputees use prosthetics? ›

A National Institutes of Health study concluded, “For example, documented rates of prosthesis use vary from 27 to 56 percent for upper-limb amputation (ULA) and from 49 to 95 percent for lower-limb amputation (LLA).

What is the best material for a prosthetic leg? ›

In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels, but less dense. Being lightweight, strong, resistant to corrosion and biocompatibility are its most desirable properties for the application of prosthetics. Its low modulus of elasticity makes it similar to that of bone.

How can I make my prosthetic leg more comfortable? ›

Silicone Liner for Prosthetic Leg

The liner protects your skin from the prosthetic material and enhances comfort as you go about your activities. A silicone liner for a prosthetic leg is both soft and durable compared to other types of liners.

What material is used for prosthetics? ›

Below the socket are Prosthetic Components which include connective components (made of aluminium, stainless steel or titanium), prosthetic joints (such as prosthetic hips, knees, elbows and wrists), and prosthetic feet or prosthetic hands (also known as a terminal device).

What is the average cost of a prosthetic leg? ›

For patients without health insurance, a prosthetic leg typically costs less than $10,000 for a basic prosthetic leg up to $70,000 or more for a more advanced computerized prosthetic leg controlled by muscle movements. Costs depend on the type of leg and the level of amputation.

How do prosthetic legs bend? ›

When weight is placed on the prosthesis, the knee will not bend until the weight is displaced. This system functions as a constant-friction knee during leg swing but is held in extension by a braking mechanism as weight is applied during stance phase.

How do prosthetic legs move? ›

Myoelectric Powered

One of the most recent inventions is powering prosthetic limbs by the muscles in your existing limb to generate electrical signal and pulses. When electrodes are placed on the skin, it reads the muscle contractions and sends signals to the limb to move.

How do you prepare a residual limb for a prosthetic? ›

Do the following every day:
  1. Wash your residual limb at least once a day. Use clean, running water and a mild antibacterial soap.
  2. Using a washcloth, scrub gently over all surfaces of the residual limb. ...
  3. Dry your residual limb thoroughly. ...
  4. Wear a clean shrinker sock every day.

How do you put a prosthetic leg over your knee? ›

How to Put on Your Above-the-Knee Prosthetics
  1. Find the middle of the shrinker and place plastic ring there.
  2. Pull one end of the shrinker up over the knee to high thigh and make sure not to move the ring in the middle.
  3. Push plastic ring to the end of the limb.
  4. Attach strap around waist securely with the Velcro.

How do you wear a prosthetic sock? ›

How to Put On Your Prosthesis
  1. Pull on or roll your sock(s) onto your residual limb making sure there are no wrinkles. ...
  2. Push the inner socket (liner) onto your residual limb making sure that your residual limb is fully into the liner. ...
  3. Pull a thin nylon sock over the top of the liner.

What happens if you wear a prosthetic for too long? ›

Stump skin often becomes macerated or worn away by poor prosthetic fit or alignment. As a result of long continued rubbing the skin becomes thickened and leathery. There can occur scaling, redness, oedema, fissuring or erosions.

Can you get in water with a prosthetic leg? ›

Many prosthetic components, such as feet and knees, are water-resistant, meaning that it's okay to be caught in a rain storm or splash water on them without causing damage. Some components are entirely waterproof, meaning it's okay to completely submerge them in water.

Are prosthetic legs heavy? ›

Even though modern prostheses are incredible, weighing as little as half a biological limb, 70% of amputees report them feeling heavier. And as a result, it can be harder for someone to accept an artificial limb as part of their body.

How long should I wear a shrinker? ›

Patients should wear shrinkers at all times until the initial prosthesis is fit. Shrinkers can be worn while the prosthesis is not on. Some patients choose to wear shrinkers at night throughout the rest of their lives, stating that it helps reduce phantom pain and sensations.

Can you wear shoes with a prosthetic leg? ›

Shoes with a flatter sole can make you feel like you're falling backwards and can lead to a sub-optimal socket angle. With a lower leg prosthesis, this can put pressure on the area just below your knee cap. Your O&P professional might recommend that you use a small insole in the shoe you wear on your prosthesis.

Is walking with a prosthetic leg hard? ›

Walking on a prosthesis is more difficult than without one. It's hard to remember to pick up your foot and take a step. Even if your leg had been amputated below the knee, you'll need help at first from crutches or another person who can hold onto you for balance.

Can you walk on the beach with a prosthetic leg? ›

Amputees can enjoy the ocean when they travel to the beach too, even while wearing their prosthetic leg. Like Jodie says, “It feels great enjoying the beach more fully!” Computerized prosthetics might not be waterproof, but amputee travelers can still enjoy dipping toes in the water.

How do I prepare my house for an amputee? ›

Here are five home improvement recommendations for amputees who are still early in their journey:
  1. Start with entrances, exits, and floors. ...
  2. Make short-term changes in the kitchen. ...
  3. Look for easy, inexpensive bathroom fixes. ...
  4. Consider rentals and second-hand items. ...
  5. Explore funding options.
20 Jun 2016

What is the most advanced prosthetic leg? ›

Ottobock Genium X3 Knee

The Genium X3 Knee is the most advanced bionic knee on the market. It is also waterproof, dustproof, and highly resistant to corrosion.

When should I start wearing a stump shrinker? ›

You will begin wearing a shrinker when healing of the incision is well underway. They are worn at night time and any time when the prosthesis is not being used. If you are not wearing a prosthesis, the shrinker should be worn both day and night with the exception of two 20 minute breaks, if desired.

Do you wear socks on a prosthetic foot? ›

You typically will want to add a sock or multiple socks when you start to feel pressure at the very end of your residual limb when you put weight into your prosthesis (while standing or walking).

What happens to muscles after amputation? ›

Muscles near the amputated limb tend to shorten. This shortening of the muscles (called contractures) typically results from prolonged sitting in a chair or wheelchair. Contractures may also result from lying in bed with the body out of alignment. Contractures can be a problem because they limit the range of motion.

Does walking on a prosthetic leg hurt? ›

It is only natural to have some muscle soreness when you begin using a prosthesis, as your body is adapting to a new way of walking. However, if you experience any pain or serious discomfort, always consult your clinician.

What does walking on a prosthetic feel like? ›

The feeling of walking with a prosthetic is very difficult to describe - it's like trying to describe how it feels to taste ice cream to someone without a tongue. It's really difficult to use at first and feels like walking on a boot with an extremely thick sole, with tight laces that go all the way up to your knee.

Is being an amputee a disability? ›

Social Security disability benefits for amputees are available. If your amputation continues to prevent you from working or living independently, then you may qualify for disability benefits through the Social Security Administration's program.

How long after a leg amputation can you get a prosthetic? ›

Prosthetic fitting can start as soon as surgical wounds are sufficiently healed, normally within 6 to 8 weeks of amputation, with exceptions for dysvascular or multitrauma patients. Then on, initial prosthetic fitting and training may take 2 weeks.

What equipment do amputees need? ›

Assistive devices for lower limb amputees can include items such as:
  • wheelchairs.
  • crutches.
  • walking sticks.
  • scooters.
  • walking frames.
  • prosthetic limbs.

What is a prosthesis designer? ›

Orthotists and prosthetists design and fabricate medical supportive devices and measure and fit patients for them. These devices include artificial limbs (arms, hands, legs, and feet), braces, and other medical or surgical devices.

What is the purpose of a prosthetic? ›

What are prostheses? A prosthesis substitutes for a part of the body that may have been missing at birth, or that is lost in an accident or through amputation. Many amputees have lost a limb as part of treatment for cancer, diabetes or severe infection.

What is the difference between orthosis and prosthesis? ›

Prosthesis - An artificial appliance which substitutes the anatomically missing component. Orthosis - An artificial appliance that supports the body part for the purpose of stabilization, support or Movement reminder.

How do you make artificial limbs? ›

Designing Successful Prosthetic Legs - YouTube

What is a prosthetic doctor called? ›

A prosthetist is a healthcare professional who makes and fits artificial limbs (prostheses) for people with disabilities. This includes artificial legs and arms for people who have had amputations due to conditions such as cancer, diabetes, or injury.

What type of degree do you need to be a prosthetist? ›

All orthotists and prosthetists must complete a master's degree in orthotics and prosthetics. These programs include courses such as upper and lower extremity orthotics and prosthetics, spinal orthotics, and plastics and other materials.

How many years does it take to become a prosthetist? ›

After graduating from high school, it takes between six to eight years to become an orthotist or prosthetist. The amount of time it takes varies based on the program of study and length of residency.

How many hours a day can you wear a prosthetic leg? ›

If you are a new amputee, your shrinker should be worn 23 hours a day, except when you are bathing or washing the residual limb. If you have been an amputee and now have a prosthesis, you should wear your shrinker only while sleeping at night.

How much does a prosthetic leg weigh? ›

Weight of Limb Segments
Upper ArmLeg
Women2.554.81
Men2.714.33
20 May 2014

How do prosthetic legs bend? ›

When weight is placed on the prosthesis, the knee will not bend until the weight is displaced. This system functions as a constant-friction knee during leg swing but is held in extension by a braking mechanism as weight is applied during stance phase.

Is a prosthetist a medical doctor? ›

A prosthetist is a healthcare provider who makes and fits artificial limbs (prostheses) for people with disabilities. This includes artificial legs and arms for people who have had amputations due to cancer, diabetes, or injury.

What is Hkafo? ›

The HKAFO is a custom-molded plastic shell with contoured metal uprights and a pelvic band that provides support and correction to the hip, knee, ankle and foot.

Is a brace a prosthetic device? ›

A prosthesis is an artificial extension that replaces a body part such as an artificial limb or artificial eye. An orthotic device or orthosis is a brace or a device that provides correction or support for weak or imbal-anced muscles.

What is the best material for a prosthetic leg? ›

In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels, but less dense. Being lightweight, strong, resistant to corrosion and biocompatibility are its most desirable properties for the application of prosthetics. Its low modulus of elasticity makes it similar to that of bone.

Are prosthetic legs heavy? ›

Even though modern prostheses are incredible, weighing as little as half a biological limb, 70% of amputees report them feeling heavier. And as a result, it can be harder for someone to accept an artificial limb as part of their body.

What material is a prosthetic leg made of? ›

A wide variety of materials are used to create the actual limb, including acrylic resin, carbon fiber, thermoplastics, silicone, aluminum, and titanium. To create a life-like appearance, a foam cover can be applied and shaped to match the real limb.

Videos

1. Running with a Prosthetic Limb
(Mission Gait)
2. Rehabilitation with an above knee leg prosthesis | Ottobock
(ottobock)
3. New amputees learning to walk with a prosthetic leg
(Hanger Clinic)
4. Amputee Essentials Prosthetic Leg Bag
(AMPUTEE STORE)
5. HOW TO PUT ON A PROSTHETIC LEG | ARTIFICIAL LEG | AMPUTEE
(Useful life skills)
6. PROSTHETIC LIMBS!? Amputee Explains Everything You've *NEVER* Wanted To Ask!
(Footless Jo)

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